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保溫砂漿和保溫板類保溫材料的系統應用

时间:2016-01-01     作者:華東公司【原创】   阅读

節約能源和保護環境是當前全球關注的焦點。作為節能的重要領域之一,我國每年20億平方米新建建筑和400億平方米既有建筑的節能,已成為國家實施能源節約戰略的重要環節,而外墻外保溫是實現建筑節能環節中的一個最重要的組成部分。所以,無論是新建建筑還是既有建筑,選用何種外墻外保溫材料實現節能顯得尤為重要。

To save energy and protect the environment is the current focus of global attention. As energy saving, one of the important fields in our country every year 2 billion square meters of new buildings and 2 billion square meters of existing buildings and energy saving, has become an important part of the country to carry out the strategy of energy conservation, and exterior insulation is the implementation of building energy efficiency part of one of the most important. So, both in new buildings and existing buildings, choose what kind of exterior insulation materials to achieve energy saving is particularly important.

  目前,市場上推廣應用的外墻外保溫材料種類繁多,主要有聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統、聚苯板薄抹灰外墻外保溫系統和擠塑聚苯板外墻外保溫系統等。10多 年來,聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統以其保溫隔熱效果好、干密度低、黏結強度高、適應性強、防裂抗滲性能優越、施工簡便等特點一直稱雄市場,為建筑節能和消除白色 污染作出了巨大貢獻。尤其是近年來國家強制執行建筑節能標準,保溫市場不斷擴大,各種新型保溫材料層出不窮,原本適用于嚴寒地區和寒冷地區的聚苯板薄抹灰 外墻外保溫系統和擠塑聚苯板外墻外保溫系統,在夏熱冬冷地區相關部門的大力推動下,同樣得以廣。聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統、聚苯板薄抹灰外墻外保溫系統、擠塑聚苯板外墻外保溫系統各自的利弊如何?在江河縱橫、湖泊密布、高溫炎熱、雨水偏多、濕度偏大且涉及我國西南地區東部和長江中下游地區16個省、自治區、直轄市的夏熱冬冷地區,在這種特定的氣候條件下,究竟更適合選用哪種保溫系統,值得分析和研究。

At present, the application of external thermal insulation materials on the market a wide range of main system of insulation mortar, polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation systems and extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system, etc。 More than 10 years, polystyrene particles insulation mortar system with its good thermal insulation effect, low dry density, high compressive strength, strong adaptability, easy arrange-designing permeability superior performance, construction etc。 Have been dominating the market, for building energy efficiency and eliminate white pollution have made great contribution。 Especially in recent years, countries enforce building energy efficiency standards, the growing market of insulation, all kinds of new type thermal insulation material emerge in endlessly, was suitable for cold area and cold area of polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation systems and extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system, relevant departments in hot summer and cold winter region, under the push of the same to widely。 System of insulation mortar, polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation system, extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system, the pros and cons of each? In rivers, lakes densely, heat, rain, humidity is big, and the more involved in the east and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river in southwest China in 16 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government in the hot summer and cold winter region, in this particular climate conditions, what is more suitable for choice of insulation system, worth analysis and research。

  

既要減少能源消耗又要保護環境是建筑節能的出發點和落腳點保溫板材系統(包括聚苯板薄抹灰外墻外保溫系統和擠塑聚苯板外墻外保溫系統)的主要材料是聚苯板或擠塑聚苯板(在此以聚苯板為例)。其中聚苯板源于純苯、乙烯、苯乙烯等高分子化工材料,原料來自原油。曾經有專家計算,每生產1噸聚苯板材需要消耗2噸原油,也就是說保溫板類外墻外保溫系統每平方米使用標準重量為20公斤/立方米的板材,如果板厚40mm,在不計損耗的情況下,1250平方米保溫板材將消耗2噸原油,全國每年新建建筑20億平方米,至少要消耗128萬噸原油。在實現節能的同時仍然大量耗能,顯然與建筑節能的初衷背道而馳。更為嚴重的是,每年因此新增用于各類建筑的3200萬立方米聚苯板材,將會成為新的白色污染源。這樣的現實值得市場各方的重視。

To reduce energy consumption and to protect the environment is the starting point and the foothold of building energy saving, thermal insulation plate system (including polystyrene board thin plastering exterior insulation systems and extruded polystyrene board exterior insulation system) is the main material of polystyrene board or extruded polystyrene board (in the eps board, for example). Including polystyrene from pure polymer chemical material such as benzene, ethylene, styrene, raw material comes from crude oil. Have experts calculate that every production 1 ton polystyrene board takes 2 tons of crude oil, that is to say, insulation board exterior insulation system using the standard weight of every square metre is 20 kg/m3 sheet, if the thickness of 40 mm, in the case of any loss, heat preservation plate will consume 2 tons of crude oil of 1250 square meters, the annual new buildings of 2 billion square meters, at least 1.28 million tons of crude oil. In the realization of energy saving at the same time is still a lot of energy dissipation, apparently with the intention of building energy efficiency. More seriously, so the New Year 32 million cubic meters of polyphenyl plate for all kinds of buildings, will become the new white pollution. The reality is worth the attention of the market parties.

   

聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統的主要原料是聚苯顆粒、粉煤灰。其中粉煤灰是循環利用電廠廢棄物,符合國家資源綜合利用政策;聚苯顆粒由商品包裝物或陳舊保鮮箱等廢棄聚苯材料經粉碎后的再利用,完全是社會終端的能源節約。據不完全統計,僅江蘇省每年生產聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿利用廢棄聚苯材料的量超過10萬噸、粉煤灰超過30萬噸,實現資源綜合利用的效果十分明顯。

Polystyrene particles insulation system is the main raw material of polystyrene particles of mortar, fly ash. Of fly ash is a waste recycling plant, in line with the national resources comprehensive utilization policy; Polystyrene particles by commodity packaging or old preservation box, reuse of waste polystyrene material after crushing, completely is terminal energy saving society. According to incomplete statistics, only produced every year in jiangsu province by using waste polystyrene material of insulation mortar volume of more than 100000 tons, more than 300000 tons of fly ash, achieve the effect of comprehensive utilization of resources is very clear.

  

通過對資源的利用對比,保溫板材系統和聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統一個是在實現節能的同時仍然還需要消耗大量的原油,一個是實現綜合利用資源,利廢環保。真正的節能不言而喻。

Through the comparison of resource utilization, thermal insulation plate system and the system of insulation mortar one is to achieve energy saving at the same time, still need to consume large amounts of crude oil, one is to realize the comprehensive utilization of resources, recycling and environmental protection。 The real energy saving is self-evident。

  

建筑保溫系統的防火安全問題事關全局

Building insulation system of fire safety is a matter of global problem

 

建筑節能的總趨勢是使用保溫隔熱性能好、防火安全性強的保溫材料。保溫板材屬于有機保溫材料,最大的缺點是防火性差。從防火安全角度考慮,耐燃性是檢驗節能產品的重要指標,如果節能產品不耐燃,或者耐燃程度不夠,就等于給建筑物穿上了易燃的外衣,埋下極大的安全隱患。保溫板材本身是可燃性材料,一旦發生火災,溫度超過保溫板材75℃著火點時,保溫板材系統反而會加劇火勢,極易引燃周邊建筑群,造成更大的火災。近年來,因保溫板材著火引發的火災事故比比皆是。尤其對高層甚至是超高層建筑物來說,一旦著火面臨的危險將束手無策。因此,高層建筑在設計時應從安全角度選擇合理的外墻外保溫系統材料。

Total trend of building energy conservation is the use of heat preservation and heat insulation performance is good, strong fire safety of thermal insulation material. Insulation board belongs to the organic heat preservation material, the biggest drawback is the difference in fire retardancy. Think in terms of fire safety, flame resistance is the important index for testing energy-saving products, if you don't fire resistant energy-saving products, or fire resistant degree is insufficient, is to put on the cloak of flammable buildings, buried under the great potential safety hazard. Heat preservation plate itself is flammable materials, in the event of fire, temperature more than 75 ℃ heat preservation plate of ignition, heat preservation plate system will aggravate the fire, ignites the surrounding buildings, cause more fires. In recent years, because of the heat preservation plate burning caused by fire accident. Especially for high-rise even super-tall building, once the fire danger will be baffled. Therefore, high-rise building from safety point of view in the design of choosing reasonable heat preservation system of outer wall material.

   

聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿是以硅酸鹽等無機膠凝材料、外加劑和具有一定粒徑、級配的聚苯顆粒在工廠復合而成。雖然系統中含有易燃的聚苯顆粒材料,但是聚苯顆粒材料全部被無機膠凝材料包裹著,相對保溫板材系統來說,其難燃性更具有優勢。從目前市場上反饋的信息表明,采用有機和無機復合的保溫系統材料是建筑墻體保溫市場的發展趨勢。

Polystyrene particles insulation mortar is silicate inorganic gelled material, additive and with a range of particle size and distribution of polystyrene particles compounded in the factory。 Although system contains flammable material of polystyrene particles, but polystyrene particle materials are all inorganic gelled material wrapped in, relative insulation board system, its flame retardant has more advantages。 From the current market feedback information shows that the organic and inorganic composite thermal insulation system is the development trend of building wall thermal insulation market。

  

有縫做法和空腔問題難以杜絕滲漏和抵御負風壓保溫板材系統的施工一般多采用點框法鋪貼板材,按照規范要求板材與墻體的粘貼面積不小于40%,這樣容易使板材與基層墻體之間留有不連續的空氣層,即空腔。另外,保溫板材鋪貼采取的都是有縫拼接,即使面層采取防滲措施,也難以杜絕滲漏問題發生,常年 累月的雨水滲漏同樣會擴大空腔面積。特別是在沿海地區海風不斷,當保溫板材系統受負風壓較大時,空腔內與外表面的壓力差必然提高,從而向外產生一個較大的推力,保溫板材系統與基層墻體之間連接的安全性就成為嚴重問題。對高層建筑使用保溫板材系統更應該考慮系統能否抗風壓,特別是抵抗負風壓的作用。建筑物越高,受風力影響越大,負風壓作用也越明顯,極易刮落保溫板材。一般風壓產生推力,負風壓產生吸力,兩種風壓對建筑外墻保溫層均會造成極大的破壞,因此要求保溫材料應具備一定的抗風壓能力。以抗負風壓為例,要求系統的保溫層無空腔,盡可能杜絕空氣層,從而避免負風壓狀態下保溫層內的空氣層出現體積膨脹造成建筑物尤其是高層建筑保溫層遭到破壞。由于保溫板材是有機材料,與其黏結的內外面都是無機材料,兩者黏結力大小將成為確保系統安全性的一個重要指標。諸多建筑物外墻外保溫層出現空鼓、脫落甚至是大面積脫落,與發泡的保溫板材有直接關系,低強度油性發泡材料的承重能力以及抗沖擊力都較差,很難黏結牢固。除此之外,對于保溫板材系統外飾面磚的高層建筑,面磚黏結層必須能經受住多年風雨侵蝕、溫度變化,必須始終保持黏結牢固,否則即使個別面磚掉落,后果將不堪設 想。

Slit practices and cavity problem is difficult to prevent leakage and to resist the negative wind pressure heater plate system construction method commonly used more box floor plate, plate and wall body according to requirements of the specification of paste area of not less than 40%, so easy to make with discontinuous air layer between each plate and base wall cavity. In addition, the heat preservation plate brick are seam joining together, even if the surface seepage control measures, and hard to eliminate leakage problems, perennial water leakage tired month will also expand the cavity area. Sea breeze continuously, especially in the coastal areas when the heat preservation plate system affected by negative wind pressure is bigger, inside the cavity and the outer pressure will increase, thus to produce a large thrust, heat preservation plate connection between the system and the basic wall security becomes a serious problem. The use of high-rise building insulation board system more should consider whether resistance to wind pressure, in particular, the role of negative wind pressure resistance. The higher the building, affected by the wind, the greater the negative wind pressure, the more obvious, also easy to scrape away heat preservation plate. Negative suction wind pressure, average wind pressure to produce thrust, two kinds of wind pressure of building external wall thermal insulation layer will cause great damage, so the heat preservation material should have a certain ability to resist wind. Negative wind pressure resistance, for example, requirement for the thermal insulation layer of the cavity, as far as possible to eliminate air layer, so as to avoid the negative wind pressure conditions in the thermal insulation layer of air layer in volume expansion caused damage to buildings especially in high-rise building insulation layer. Due to the heat preservation plate is organic material, and its bonding is inorganic material in the outside, the bonding force will become an important index to ensure the system security. Many building external wall thermal insulation layer appears empty drum, fall off or even fall off large area, and foaming is directly related to the heat preservation plate, low intensity of oily foaming material of bearing capacity and rigidity are poor, it is difficult to stick firmly. In addition, for the heat preservation plate system face brick of high-rise building, brick bond layer must be able to endure years of wind and rain erosion, temperature change, must always keep bond is strong, even if the individual brick drops, set to go to.

  

相比之下,采用聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統的保溫系統,由于聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿同基層的黏結基本是全封閉,不存在黏結空隙,被稱為無空腔保溫系統,不會受到負風壓的影響,在高層和超高層建筑中應用安全性要高很多。目前該類系統在國內的很多地區占有較大的市場份額。

Using polystyrene particles insulation mortar system, by contrast, insulation system, as a result of the polystyrene particles insulation mortar and the grass-roots cohere basic is fully enclosed, there is no bond space, referred to as no cavity insulation system, not affected by the negative wind pressure, applied in the tall and super-tall building security is much higher。 At present the system occupy the bigger market share in many parts of the domestic。

  

行政監管是嚴格執行建筑節能標準的關鍵

Administrative supervision is the key to strictly implement building energy efficiency standards

   

值得重視的是,對于市場上大量采用的聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿,由于有些技術研發能力差的保溫砂漿企業在原料選擇、生產工藝、質量控制等環節不具有優勢,在實際的工程應用過程中采取非正規渠道蒙混過關,以質次價低搶占市場,形成惡性競爭,造成市場混亂,影響了人們對保溫砂漿的認識。從近年來市場的應用情況看,目前市場上聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統產品存在上述問題的癥結在于,部分聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿廠的配方多是從北方采暖地區購買的(在我國,墻體保溫應用最先開始在北方地區,后逐步向南方地區推進,各類保溫系統產品也是如此),對于南方潮濕天氣的適應性研究不夠,產品的配方也存在不合適的地方。在購買或者引進聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統技術配方后,必須有針對性地進行相應的試驗研究。在此方面,各級行政管理部門應當對此加以重視,加強行政監管,嚴格執行建筑節能標準。無論采用 哪類保溫系統材料,都應該如此。

, attention should be paid for the use of polystyrene particles insulation mortar on the market, due to some technical research and development ability of poor thermal insulation mortar enterprises in raw material selection, production process, quality control, do not have advantage, in the process of practical engineering application to informal channels muddle through, to seize market with inferior quality low price, vicious competition, market confusion, affects the people to the understanding of the thermal insulation mortar. Look from the application of the market in recent years, the system of insulation mortar products on the market at present the main reasons for the above problems, some of the polystyrene particles insulation mortar plant formula from the purchase of the heating of the north (in our country, the wall heat preservation application first began in the north, after gradually advance to the southern region, all kinds of insulation system products), to the south of wet weather adaptability research is not enough, the product of the formula is not the right place. In the buying or the introduction of system of insulation mortar technology formula, after must be targeted to the corresponding experimental study. In this regard, the administrative departments at all levels should attach importance to this, strengthen the administrative supervision, strict enforcement of building energy saving standards. No matter use which kinds of materials, heat preservation system should be so.

  

建筑節能是功在當代利在千秋的大事業,節能市場應該遵循節約能源、保護環境的宗旨。在我國全面實施建筑節能務必要根據不同地區不同氣候條件,因地制宜地解決建筑節能存在的問題,在新材料技術尚未成熟的條件下,對于夏熱冬冷地區完全使用聚苯顆粒保溫砂漿系統可以滿足標準要求的,應該積極鼓勵使用,不要“一刀切”強制使用保溫板材系統或者其他類保溫系統。不管采用哪類保溫系統,關鍵要做到嚴格執行標準和規范,切實加強行政監管,堅決杜絕假冒偽劣產品進入建筑節能市場。

Building energy conservation is GongZaiDangDai cabinet's big enterprise, and energy saving market should follow the principle of energy saving, environmental protection. In our country, the full implementation of building energy conservation must according to different regional climate condition, adjust measures to local conditions to solve the problems of building energy efficiency, under the condition of new materials technology is not yet mature, in hot summer and cold winter region using polystyrene particles insulation mortar system can completely meet the standard requirements, should actively encourage the use of, do not use heat preservation plate "one size fits all" mandatory system or other class insulation system. No matter use which kinds of thermal insulation system, the key to do strictly enforce standards and norms, strengthen the administrative supervision, resolutely put an end to fake and shoddy products to enter the building energy efficiency market.


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