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保溫砂漿及其他材料的開裂及應對措施

时间:2016-07-18     作者:www.vfeqvs.com【原创】   阅读

目前國內建筑墻體保溫多選內保溫作法,因為內保溫比外保作法簡單風險小,但保溫層面層裂縫成為一大難題.本文敘述內保溫墻體面層裂縫的原因和對策。

At present domestic building wall insulation alternative insulation, because after the outside heat preservation than simple practice risk is small, but the thermal insulation layer surface cracks become a big problem. This paper insulation wall body and the causes of cracks on the surface.


一、保溫板材變形

A, heat preservation plate deformation


引起裂縫的原因與對策

The causes of cracks and countermeasures


不少施工單位為減少濕作業.選用貼預制保溫板作法。預制保溫板材在工廠成型,現場只需粘貼即可,方便了施工作業。但這種貼板法在施工二三個月至一年后,多數面層都出現了不同程度的開裂,板接縫處尤為明顯。其原因是外墻結構暴露在大氣中受溫差變化影響結構整體外形尺寸也發生變化,而附在外墻上的每一塊保溫板材都單獨地收縮和膨脹。墻體變形量大,保溫板變形量小,由此產生墻體與保溫板材體型變化的應力方向和大小不同,各部分的這種變化隨溫度升降而輪回出現。內保溫板材附著在一個不穩定的基礎上,常規情況下,板塊裂縫出現只是一個時間早晚的問題。對這種裂縫的對策是板縫應考慮采用彈性軟聯接材料。

Many construction units to reduce wet homework。 Choose paste prefabricated insulation board。 At the factory prefabrication insulating plate forming, the scene just paste can, convenient for construction。 But this kind of strap method in the construction of two or three months to a year later, most of the surface appeared different degree of cracking, particularly plate juncture place。 The reason for this is that external wall structure is exposed to the atmosphere is affected by the temperature changing structure overall dimension change, and attached to the outer wall of each heat preservation plates separately contraction and expansion。 Wall deformation is large, insulation plate deformation is small, the resulting stress of the wall with insulation plate shape change direction and the size is different, each part of this change with the temperature lift and rebirth。 Insulation sheet attached in an unstable, on the basis of conventional cases, plate cracking is just a a matter of time。 Countermeasures for this kind of crack is flexible connecting joints should consider adopting flexible material。


二、保溫材料受潮變軟

Second, the heat preservation material softening of be affected with damp be affected with damp


引起裂縫的原因和對策

The causes of cracks and countermeasures


為避免板縫開裂很多人選擇了漿料型現場抹灰的保溫作法.以求得到整塊的保溫層。這種保溫層雖取得了整體性好、沒有裂縫的效果.但抹灰漿料無法象板材那樣設置空氣層。不能有效地控制墻體結露,保溫層處于潮濕狀態。室內外溫差造成墻體結露現象是經常發生的。若室溫為20℃.相對濕度為70%的條件下,露點為14℃,也就是墻體溫度低于14℃時墻面就會出現結露。在保溫結構中,保溫層置于內側.墻體溫度常低于14℃。即在保溫層與墻體結構層界面處產生結露。若保溫材料沒有良好的抗蒸汽滲透性.保溫層吸水會使導熱系數進一步變大,加劇結露現象。目前建筑保溫材料中有很大的一部份漿體保溫材料遇水軟化,喪失強度。

To avoid plate slit a lot of people choose the scene of the slurry type plaster insulation。 In order to get the whole piece of thermal insulation layer。 The thermal insulation layer is integral sex is good, no crack results have been achieved。 But the plaster slurry can't set the air layer like sheet。 Can not effectively control the wall condensation, insulation layer in the wet state。 Caused by temperature difference between indoor and outdoor wall dewing phenomenon is frequent。 If the room temperature is 20 ℃, relative humidity of 70%, under the condition of dew point of 14 ℃, that is the wall temperature below 14 ℃ metope can appear condensation。 In thermal insulation structure, thermal insulation layer on the inside。 The wall temperature is often lower than 14 ℃。 In the thermal insulation layer and dewing wall structure layer interface。 If the heat preservation material without good vapor permeability resistance。 Thermal insulation layer suction can make further larger thermal conductivity, increasing condensation phenomenon。 At present a significant part of the building thermal insulation material slurry heat preservation material in water softening, loss of strength。


這種現象最終會導致面層開裂。一般情況下在結構墻體上應避免采用經水提泡48h,粘接強度喪失50%以上的材料,即軟化系數低于0.5的保溫漿料。滎陽市永大機械設備廠設備的研究、設計,擁有一流的設計師和制作團隊,不斷創新的永大人,設計的高效全自動保溫砂漿生產線設備受到國內外客戶的一直贊譽。

This kind of phenomenon will ultimately lead to surface cracking。 Generally on the structure of wall body should avoid using the water bubble 48 h, bonding strength loss of more than 50% of the material, the heat preservation material softening coefficient less than 0。5。 Xingyang wing tai machinery equipment factory equipment research, design, have a first-class designers and production team, continuous innovation of adult, design of efficient automatic production line of insulation mortar equipment has been praised by customers at home and abroad。


三、玻纖網布耐堿強度保持率低

Three, low alkali glass fiber mesh cloth strength retention


引起裂縫的原因和對策

The causes of cracks and countermeasures


常見的玻纖網布有三種不同材質,即無堿網布、中堿網布和耐堿網布。實驗證明,它們在堿性條件下抗拉強度都有所下降。無堿網布抗拉強度高,但耐堿性能最差。其次是中堿網布,其耐堿性能亦差,在水泥砂漿中一個月左右玻璃纖維就會粉化,輕拉即斷開。抗堿性能最好要屬含氧化鋯的耐堿玻纖網布,氧化鋯在玻璃纖維中含量在14%~16%時,其耐堿強度保持率在60%~80%左右。另外、玻纖網布表面涂覆材料的不同選擇,也會對網布的抗拉強度及耐堿強度保持率發生重要影響。

Common there are three kinds of different materials, glass fiber mesh cloth namely non-alkali cloth, in base mesh cloth and alkali mesh cloth. Experiments have proved that they all under the condition of alkaline tensile strength decreased. Non-alkali fabric tensile strength is high, but worst alkalis. Alkali followed by alkali mesh cloth, its performance is also poor, a month or so of glass fiber in cement mortar will pulverization, gently pull the disconnect. Alkali resistance can best to alkali glass fiber mesh cloth containing zirconium oxide, zirconium oxide in the glass fiber content in 14% ~ 16%, the alkali resistant strength retention rate at about 60% ~ 80%. In addition, the different choices of different glass fiber mesh cloth surface coating material, also on the tensile strength and alkali resistance strength of fabric is retention has important influence.


3.聚合物砂漿強度的選擇

3. The choice of polymer mortar strength


目前常與玻纖網布配套使用的聚合物砂漿、其配比為425號水泥:細砂=1:2加調適量聚合物乳液。這種聚合物砂漿粘接強度很高,表面硬度也很高,其強度在1.1~2.0mpa。水泥砂漿強度過高和使用細砂,都會促使基層開裂。因而應選用具有可變形的特點的彈性乳液:425號水泥:中砂=1:1:3制作的彈性砂漿,能在很大程度上控制墻面裂縫。

Is often associated with the glass fiber mesh cloth used polymer mortar, the ratio for 425 # cement: fine = 1:2 to add a moderate amount of polymer emulsion。 The polymer mortar high bonding strength, surface hardness is high, its strength is 1。1 ~ 2。0 mpa。 High strength of cement mortar and the use of fine sand, will encourage grassroots craze。 So should choose has the characteristics of the deformable elastic emulsion: 425 # cement: medium sand = 1:1:3 elasticity of mortar, can control wall cracks in the very great degree。


4.網布構造位置的選擇

4. Net cloth tectonic location choice


玻纖網布在水泥砂漿中起軟鋼筋的作用、網布能否正確發揮作用,其配筋位置十分關鍵。目前常發生裂縫的保溫板,其網布鋪貼位置是靠在保溫層上面,而在網布外面有1~3cm厚的水泥聚合物砂漿層。這種作法在水泥砂漿強度增長后會導致面層開裂。合理的作法是在保溫層上先用彈性水泥砂漿抹3~5mm厚,然后將網格布用鐵抹子及時壓入沙漿之中。

Fiberglass mesh cloth in cement mortar plays the role of soft steel, mesh cloth can work correctly, its reinforcement position is very critical. The cracks often occur insulation board, its net cloth shop is stuck position in thermal insulation layer, and on the outside of the fabric is there is 1 ~ 3 cm thick layer of polymer cement mortar. This practice can cause surface cracking after cement mortar strength increasing. Is reasonable on the thermal insulation layer with elastic with cement mortar first 3 ~ 5 mm thick, and then to press the mesh cloth use iron float shall timely into mortar.


四、舒樂舍板配筋

Four, shule plate reinforcement


造成裂縫的原因和對策

Causes of the cracks and countermeasures


目前在墻體保溫上用聚苯板上插鍍鋅鋼絲網的作法也不少。其作法通常是將保溫板直接放在砼大模板內側,澆注鹼時將保溫板固定在外墻表面,用1:1:6的(水泥:灰膏:砂)砂漿抹2—3cm,將鍍鋅絲網面及鋼絲網表面接縫抹平。

At present on the wall thermal insulation with eps board plug did a lot of galvanized steel wire net. Its practice is usually put insulation board directly in concrete big inside of the template, pouring alkali to fix insulation board on the wall surface, with 1:1:6 (cement, plaster, sand) mortar plastering 2 -- 3 cm, the surface of galvanized wire mesh and wire mesh with seam.


鋼絲網表面抹灰作法常規看來是人們較為放心的保溫層構造設計。經工程跟蹤觀察,這種聚苯板上插鋼絲網的保溫作法,也多發生裂縫,裂縫的形狀多為斜裂縫和直裂縫,裂縫通常發生在面層砂漿抹灰完成一個月左右的時間里。

Wire mesh surface rendering practice routine seems to be more people trust of insulation structure design. Tracking the project, the polystyrene insulation plug wire mesh on practice, also many cracks occur, the shape of diagonal crack, and straight cracks, cracks usually occur during surface mortar plaster finish a month or so.


這種裂縫產生的原因經分析有以下幾點。

The cause of the cracks in the analysis has the following points。


1.鋼絲網原構造位置改變,在現澆砼剪力墻時,帶鋼絲網的聚苯保溫板在外模板的內側,由于澆注砼對模板產生側壓力,上下不同部位的側壓力差值很大,造成聚苯板變形鋼絲網位移。下部的聚苯板面已被擠到了鋼絲網的外面,而上部受側壓較小,聚苯板還距鋼絲網0.5~lcm。

Wire mesh structure's former location change, in cast-in-situ concrete shear wall, steel mesh polystyrene insulation board outside the inside of the template, due to the lateral pressure, pouring concrete to the template and different parts of the lateral pressure difference is very big, cause of polystyrene deformation displacement of wire mesh. Lower part of the eps panel has been pushed into the outside of the wire mesh, and the upper lateral pressure is small, polystyrene also from wire mesh 0.5 ~ LCM.


這種鹼震搗后導致的鋼絲網的相對位移,會造成水泥砂層中鋼筋的位置每層都有不同的變化,水泥砂漿無配筋的厚度在1~50mm范圍內無規則的變化。這使得它們在水泥經砂漿熱脹冷縮或正負風壓受力時所起的作用正好相反。

The alkali after vibrating causes the relative displacement of the steel mesh can cause cement sand layer position of the reinforcement of different changes of each layer, the thickness of the cement mortar without reinforcement within 1 ~ 50 mm with no rules changes。 This makes them in cement mortar heat bilges cold shrink or positive and negative wind pressure stress the role of just the opposite。


2.舒樂舍板插鋼絲網的網眼為50mm×50mm,對角線尺寸為72mm。對角線方向水泥砂漿抹灰層無配筋,網眼孔過大,是導致面層砂漿斜裂縫的另一重要原因。

2。 The shule shed board plug wire mesh x 50 mm to 50 mm, diagonal dimension is 72 mm。 Diagonal direction without reinforcement, cement mortar plastering layer mesh hole is too big, is another important cause of the diagonal crack surface mortar。


3.聯接網片漏放,導致直裂縫。在舒樂板拼裝時,施工中稍不謹慎就有可能漏綁絲網之間的聯接片,鋼絲網斷開處,必然產生直裂縫。據此,舒樂板配置鋼絲網抹灰完成后,應在面層增加抗裂彈性水泥漿壓入耐堿玻纖網布,做為面層的抗裂層。

3。 Join mesh leakage, lead to crack。 During the construction of shule plate assembly, a bit not careful it may leak to screen between the connecting piece, steel mesh disconnect, inevitably produce straight crack。 Accordingly, shule plate configuration wire mesh rendering is finished, where should be the surface to increase flexibility anti-crack slurry pumped alkali glass fiber mesh cloth, as the surface of the crack layer。


本文來自:保溫砂漿   外墻保溫砂漿  轉載請注明出處

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